SAP – Sales and Distribution Module - Lesson 3
In the previous lessons (Lesson 1 and Lesson 2), we’ve seen how the individual Enterprise structure elements were created and linked. Now we will try to understand Master Data.
Essentially to carry out any sales transaction, the important elements are Material(what you buy/sell) and from/to whom(Vendor/Customer respectively). You would also need Pricing Condition records to identify where/to whom/and how much.. In this lesson we will focus on Customer Master.
This is created in coordination with Finance function.
Customer account group is necessary to create customers as per classification for eg - Sold-to party, Ship-to party, Bill-to party.
Customer Account group controls
- Customer number range
- Display / restrict data in the customer master screens
Customer Master data is divided as below
- Company code data – Data related to Financial accounting. It is maintained by Finance department and key data for payment processing in FI accounting is captured. Key data is
- Terms of payment
- Reconciliation account
- Sales Area data – Data controls sales document processing through order, delivery and billing stages. Key data is
- Currency in which customer should be billed
- Pricing related data
- General data – Data common across all company codes and sales area
Customers need to be created with master data as required for sales order processing so that products can be delivered to the customer at the required location and billing is done so that all statutory requirements are met.
Transaction code – VD01
Customer should be created by Finance with company code data. Define Account group in customizing.
Account group definition has following key controls.
Double click on 0001
Key fields here are
Number range – 01
Click on 1st line
On the 1st line, you see number range 01, which is assigned to account group; 0001.
Number range controls, which numbers could be assigned to the customer (From …to). Sold-to party can have customer number starting from 01 to 99999.
Number can be entered while creating the customer if is marked. If you want to add new number range, click on
This is marked if you want to create sales document for the customer only once for the customer. Account group for the same is CDP. As it is one-time customer, it does not need data like credit control area, delivering plant.
This controls for which fields, data is mandatory or field should not be available for entry at all or which are not allowed to be changed.
Various customer master data screens
Click on Sales data
click on shipping
In shipping data, shipping condition is configured as required entry as it is required in the determination of shipping point.
Customer master is one of the options used for plant determination (other options, customer-material info record or material master record). Therefore, the field can be kept optional.
Transportation zone – This field gets value from the general data and therefore is kept as display.
Determination procedures – Define default procedures for central text, sales area text, output, partner and pricing.
Field selection in the customer master can also be different for create / change / display transactions.
Click on one of these and then you have similar options for suppressed, required, optional and display fields.
Other important customizing settings are as below.
Above are different fields used to capture marketing data of the customer.
Example – Industry sector for customer
Sales district – It can represent a sales region. Sales statistics can be generated using sales district as selection criterion.
Delivery priority –When you process deliveries collectively, then delivery priority can be used to prioritize delivery.
You can define customer calendar and goods receiving hours
Double click on the 1st entry.
Select Factory calendar and click Calendar
It lists workdays in a week and as well holiday calendar for the factory calendar
select from the list of calendars
To define when a customer receives which billing documents, enter the calendar containing the billing schedules in the master record of the payer.
Calendar is defined to take care of the billing schedules. Terms of payment
You can agree on terms of payment with the customer per sales area.
These agreements may deviate from what is defined in the FI module. The sales area terms of payment are included in a billing document and are transferred to Accounting where they may be overwritten. That is the reason; terms of payment in SD should also be maintained with the help of FI or by FI. Most of the fields are part of FI configuration.
Key controls to understand here are
- Acount type – Payment terms are applicable for customer / vendor account
- Baseline date – Date from which the days of payment apply. Example – Terms of payment is 30 days. Baseline date is posting date, then due date for payment for the customer would be 30 days added to the posting date.
- Cash discount % - % discount (example – 2%) granted to the customer if payment is done within number of days (example – 14 days) specified. You can still add additional period by fixing a date or additional month after the discount period. 2nd and 3rd line indicate that payment has to be done within 45 days and there is no discount if it is done after 30 days.
Contact person data
Enter the account group 001 for maintaining sold-to party customer. Enter sales area for which you want to maintain the customer
Transportation zone – Regional zone of the goods recipient
VAT reg.no.- This is applicable in EU
Marketing can capture data related to marketing using fields like customer class., annual sales etc.
Sales area data
Sales office, Sales district and Sales group are maintained as defined/assigned in customizing.
Currency – The currency in which customer will be billed
Authorization group - It is assigned to field group in customizing so that users assigned to the authorization group can change fields assigned to the field group during change mode of the customer master.
Exchange rate type – this is used to define buying, selling rate as per exchange rates maintained in FI.
Price group – when you want to have similar kind of pricing for certain set of customers, and then same price group can be assigned.
Delivery priority – When you process deliveries collectively, then delivery priority can be used to prioritize delivery.
Shipping condition – It is used in the determination of shipping point determination.
Customer pricing procedure – This is key factor in determination of pricing procedure
- if active, it will allow sales orders created in this sales area to be combined with other sales orders in a delivery.
Delivering plant – Plant from which materials should be delivered to the customer. If not maintained, system checks for delivering plant in the sales view of the material master record.
POD – proof of delivery can be made active and also you can set timeframe, in which POD is expected from the goods recepient.
- If this is active, partial delivery is not allowed.
C is set when is active
D is set when there is no limit to be put on the number of partial deliveries allowed.
- When partial deliveries are allowed, then you can use this field to restrict number of partial deliveries.
This allows setting up tolerances if under or over delivery is allowed.
Invoicing Date - This is the schedule to bill the customer on particular dates as per the calendar defined for the customer.
Incoterms and Payment terms are explained above.
Credit Control Area – This is assigned to set credit limit to the customer in a sales area.
- This is used in the automatic determination of revenue accounts.
Tax condition categories will get listed with the countries as per the countries of the plants assigned to the sales organization and distribution channel in the enterprise structure – assign – SD
Select the tax classification as applicable to condition category.
Partner functions are maintained as above.
Other data in the customer master at sales area level
Customers can be blocked for the sales area or all sales areas for order, delivery or billing.
Text for the customer at the sales area level is maintained as below.